The Declination of Polish Nouns and Adjectives

Classification of Polish Consonants

soft consonants g(i) k(i) ch(i) r(i) w(i) f(i) p(i) m(i) b(i) dź = dz(i) ć = c(i) ń = n(i) ś = s(i) ź = z(i) l h(i)   j
hardened consonants dz c sz rz   cz ż  
hard consonants g k ch r w f p m b d t n s z ł h  

Declination Table

  singular plural
masculine neuter feminine masculine personal masculine non-personal + feminine neuter
Nominative nouns -consonant

(-ca, -sta → decline as feminine)
soft+hardened -e (-ďż˝*)

hard -o

(-um → do not decline!)

(-yni, -ini, -ni; rarely consonants: -ość, sól, rzecz, noc, wieś)
soft+hardened -e

g, k, r -y

rest -i
or -owie soft+hardened -e

g, k, -ość -i

rest, rzecz -y
adjectives soft, g, k: -i

rest: -y
soft, g, k: stem+ie

rest: stem+e
soft: stem+ia

rest: stem+a
soft, g, k: -i

rest: -y

(see Table above!)
soft, g, k: -ie

rest: -e
Genetive nouns -a (-u) -a soft, ch, g, k: -i

rest: -y
-´w masculine non-personal

soft: -i

rest: -ów (-y)

soft: -Ø

hardened: -y

hard -Ø
adjectives -ego -ej soft, g, k: -ich

rest: -ych
Dative nouns -owi (-u) -u soft: -i

hardened: -y

ch, g, k → sz, dz, c: -e

rest → soft: -e
adjectives -emu as genetive soft, g, k: -im

rest: -ym
Accusative nouns animates as genetive inanimates as nominative as nominative if nominative ends in

a, i: -ďż˝

cons: as nominative
as genetive as nominative

(feminine sometimes -Ø)
adjectives as genetive as nominative - as genetive as nominative
Instrumental nouns -em - -ami (-mi)
adjectives soft, g, k: -im

rest: -ym
as accusative soft, g, k: -imi

rest: -ymi
Locative nouns soft+hardened, ch, g, k: -u

rest -e (consonant changes as dative feminine!)
as dative if nominative singular finishes in a, e, i, o or Ø -ach

(Niemczech, Woszech, W�rzech)
adjectives as instrumental as genetive as genetive
Vocative nouns as locative as nominative if nominative ends in

a -o (rarely -u)

rest as dative
as nominative
adjectives as nominative


darker blue shaded boxes Remember consonant changes (dź→dzi, ć→ci, ƒ→ni, ś→si, ź→zi)
white font color Remember to add an i after g and k!
* Insert before singular endings -�i- (-eni-), and before plural endings -�- (-on-), (-t for genetive plural)